Abstract: Graphene-based and 2D nanomaterials are showing very promising results in the biomedical field. They are explored for many different biomedical applications, including cancer treatment, due to their unique physicochemical characteristics. In this seminar, I will describe the characteristics of biodegradability and illustrate how an appropriate chemical modification of these materials renders them more biocompatible and can accelerate their biodegradability. I will focus on our recent results aiming to design a smart multifunctional graphene platform able to both selectively deliver a drug into cells in a targeted manner and displaying an enhanced propensity for enzymatic degradation. Moreover, I will also address the safety concerns of graphene-based and 2D materials on immune system, focusing on human primary lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages.